Simulating the Impacts of Gambling in a Tourist Location; Some Evidence from Israel
”. Journal of Travel Research
37 (2):145-155. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Gambling and tourism are often perceived as comple mentary activities. This article examines this relationship both conceptually and empirically. While land-based casino gambling is not a legalized activity at present in Israel, the economic impacts of introducing a casino at Israel's premier vacation resort, Eilat, are simulated. This ex ante evaluation shows that much of the output, income, and employment gains generated by a casino are likely to be captured outside the region and that localized impacts are small. The dis placement of existing local economic activity is examined, and the case of increased tourism expenditures generated by the casino is simulated. The public policy implications of these findings point to the necessity of developing activities that complement tourism at the local level, not just at the na tional level. The gambling-tourism relationship simulated for Eilat shows that national and local interests are not al ways synonymous.
1998. “Market Failure and the Estimation of Subsidy Size in a Regional Entrepreneurship Program
”. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development
10 (2):151-165. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Capital subsidy programmes aimed at small businesses attempt to compensate for market failures that exist in the conventional financing markets. The existence of these market failures means that some small firms can be denied access to credit despite the fact that they have viable business projects. This rejection occurs because the ‘risk profile’ of the small business is likely to be weighted by factors other than project viability such as ownership structure, business experience and location of the firm. Information on firms with these characteristics is often limited and thus they are overlooked by otherwise well-functioning credit markets. This paper presents an empirical examination of the subsidy embodied in a capital assistance programme that addresses this situation. Data are analysed pertaining to nearly 500 loans and loan guarantees authorized for small businesses in peripheral regions in Israel over the period 1993–95. The gross size of the subsidy embodied in the programme is calculated and a methodology is presented. Employment impacts of the programme are also presented. On this basis, the magnitude of the subsidy-per-job is estimated and the implications of this kind of programme for increasing regional welfare are discussed.
. 1998. “
1998. “Does Gambling Complement the Tourist Industry? Some Empirical Evidence of Import Substitution and Demand Displacement
”. Tourism Economic
4 (3):213-232. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The complementarities between tourism and gambling at the local level are examined empirically from two rather different gambling environments (Indiana, USA and Eilat, Israel) in order to show how gambling acts as an import substitution activity and impacts on existing demand. In both contexts, the sources of demand for gambling, the extent to which these are 'tourist' sources and the question of gambling-generated demand displacing existing tourist demand, are examined. Despite the rather different market and political contexts in Indiana and Israel, the findings on the gambling-tourism relationship and the effect of gambling on local economies, are remarkably consistent. In both cases, gambling is seen to be grounded in import-substitution rather than pure 'export' activity. Additionally, in both cases there is evidence that the introduction of gambling displaces tourist demand. The policy implications of these findings point to the need to differentiate between local and national impacts of gambling and between the local fiscal and local economic development impacts.
. 1998. “Time-Distance Substitution in Halacha
”. Pp. 67-86 in Brodsky H and Mitchell R.(ed), Land and Community; Geography in Jewish Studies
, Brodsky H and Mitchell R.(ed), Land and Community; Geography in Jewish Studies
. University of Maryland Press. Publisher's Version